Duke Ellington, The Nutcracker Suite (1960)

The Nutcracker Suite, as performed by Duke Ellington and His Orchestra, works on me like a time machine. I’d call it "nostalgia," but I was only four years old in 1960 when it was first recorded. I had no knowledge of the world outside my home and family. I certainly had no awareness of Duke Ellington.

I did not begin listening to Ellington until much later in life, and I should probably be waxing nostalgic about the 1980s when I first fell in love with Ellington's music rather than 1960 when Eisenhower was president. However, that is not how Ellington's music affects me. It doesn't take me back to a time in my own life when I was discovering the music's soulful elegance, it takes me to the time of its recording, a time when big band music was an integral part of American culture.

My faux nostalgia comes from a longing for an era when Ellington's music could be heard with ears more acclimated to big band music. I yearn to hear Ellington's music as an unalloyed product of its time, to hear it without the iconic adulation that came from a later age. I am envious of those who heard Ellington's music when it was first performed, before it was reshaped by familiarity. How groundbreaking and imaginative it must have sounded when it was new and fresh.

In 1965, a music jury voted to make Ellington the first African American and jazz performer to win the Pulitzer Prize for Music. The Pulitzer committee, to its everlasting shame, refused to accept the recommendation and decided not to give an award for music that year rather than recognize Ellington. Not until 1996 was an African-American (George Walker) awarded the Pulitzer Prize in Music. In 1997, Wynton Marsalis became the first person to win a Pulitzer for composing jazz.

“Critics have their purposes, and they're supposed to do what they do, but sometimes they get a little carried away with what they think someone should have done, rather than concerning themselves with what they did. – Duke Ellington


The Nutcracker Suite, arranged by Duke Ellington and Billy Strayhorn,
performed by
ARC Studio Jazz Ensemble & The Sacramento Jazz Orchestra


The Nutcracker Suite, performed by Steven Richman conducting the Harmonie Ensemble,
followed by a performance by Duke Ellington and His Orchestra

Herbie Mann

I know nothing about Herbie Mann as a human being. I know only his music.

His recordings tell me nothing about his family, personal temperament, or worldview. They inform me only of his skills as a musician — his ability to improvise and perform in sync with other musicians, his ability to remain true to the harmonic progressions that underscored his solos and the syncopated rhythms that propelled him forward. The recordings tell me nothing about whether he was a great guy or a rascal, and I don’t really care. His music makes me smile, and that's enough.

Herbie Mann died in 2003 at his home in Pecos, NM. His music has brought me great joy over the years, and I still mourn his loss.

Bless you, Herbie Mann. Whether you were a saint, a demon, or just a regular guy, may you rest in peace. As a jazz musician, you were, for this former flute player, a demigod.

The Family of Mann performing “Memphis Underground,” 1982


Newport Jazz Festival, 1989


Oscar Peterson's Master Class

The distinguished Oscar Peterson (1925-2007) was a Canadian jazz pianist who was trained in the European classical tradition. This short video of Mr. Peterson explaining styles of jazz piano is a gem. All told, the video provides six examples of jazz piano.
  • Stride (Art Tatum)
  • Two-Fingered Percussiveness (Nat King Cole)
  • Lyric Octaves (Errol Garner)
  • Relaxed Block Chords (George Shearing)
  • Double Octave Melody Lines
  • Tonality-Based


As for Peterson's own style, here's how it's described in
A Natural History of the Piano by Stuart Isacoff:

“The Peterson style was always characterized by rapid, graceful, blues-tinged melody lines unfurled in long, weaving phrases with the inexorable logic of an epic narrative; and, equally important, a visceral sense of rhythm, transmitted with fire and snap. Those qualities for which he was renowned — effortless fluidity and clockwork precision — were not merely aspects of his playing; they were the very foundation on which his artistic expression rested. And pulling them off required the highest level of athletic prowess.”





Brubeck, "Blue Rondo à la Turk" (1959)

In 1958, the jazz pianist and composer Dave Brubeck was touring the Middle East when he heard a Turkish folk tune that repeated a rhythmic pattern divided into beats of 2 + 2 + 2 + 3 + 9. Brubeck later converted that Turkish music into a jazz tune titled "Blue Rondo à la Turk," a piece that serves as a great example of what can be done with odd meter in jazz. The Dave Brubeck Quartet first recorded the piece in 1959 for their ground-breaking album Time Out.

The rhythm of "Blue Rondo à la Turk" is organized into groups of nine beats, but it is the subdivision of the nine beats that makes the piece so fascinating. At the beginning of the tune, the nine beats are subdivided as
2 + 2 + 2 + 3. This subdivision is then repeated three times before switching to a subdivision of 3 + 3 + 3, which is only played once before switching back to 2 + 2 + 2 + 3. This pattern repeats itself several times before leading into an extended section of improvisation without the Turkish rhythms, which do make a reappearance at the end to wrap things up.

Whew! I wish you the best of luck at keeping up with what happens rhythmically, and I hope I have described it clearly and accurately.

Dave Brubeck Quartet

The Ubiquitous Bach

What type of music do I most enjoy? The answer depends on my mood. Some days I turn to folk, jazz, or rock. If I'm in the mood for something from the classical repertoire, I must make a choice about whether I want to hear something form the Baroque, Classical, Romantic, or Modern era. If I decide to hear something from the Romantic era, I must then decide whether I’m in the mood for Chopin, Brahms, or Mahler.

So much music. So many choices. So little time.

I will say, however, that no matter what type of music I choose I’m likely to bump into Bach — I can't escape him. His music is everywhere, inserting itself on all types of music and entertainment.

I turned to an old episode of
Northern Exposure recently and caught the character played by Barry Corbin drinking wine and listening to the Goldberg Variations. A few days later I was streaming Martin Scorsese’s The Aviator and heard Toccata and Fugue in D minor. Every week or so I hear Jon Batiste greeting one of Stephen Colbert’s guests with something from Bach. After Sarah Silverman sat on Colbert’s couch, she asked Batiste, “What was that?” Batiste answered, “Bach,” as if Silverman should have known. (She should have.)

I hear Bach’s influence in songs by the Beatles, as well as the introduction to the Door’s
Light My Fire. When I listen to jazz, I often hear music derived from Bach.

No matter where I’m going, there I am — listening to Bach. Bach died over 265 years ago, but more than any other composer his music is ubiquitous in our culture.

Just look at the information below.

The Internet Movie Database lists 1361 movie and television soundtracks from 1931-2018 that use Bach’s music. This number has increased from 755 since I first looked at it three years ago for a class I was teaching on Bach, and I expect the number will keep increasing. Anyone who watches movies and television cannot escape Bach.
  • Fifty Shades of Grey (Concerto in D minor)
  • The Butler (Partita No. 1 in B-flat)
  • The Iron Lady (Prelude in C major from Well-Tempered Clavier I)
  • The English Patient (Goldberg Variations)
  • Silence of the Lambs (Goldberg Variations)
  • Die Hard (Brandenburg Concerto No. 3)
  • The Godfather (Passacaglia & Fugue in C minor)
  • Sunset Boulevard (Toccata and Fugue in D minor)
  • Fantasia (Toccata and Fugue in D minor)
Bach has influenced or been quoted directly in numerous popular songs.
  • The Beach Boys, “Lady Lynda” (Jesu, Joy of Man’s Desiring)
  • Procol Harum, “A Whiter Shade of Pale” (Air on the G String)
  • The Doors, “Light My Fire” – Ray Manzarek said his keyboard playing was influenced by Bach
  • Jethro Tull, “Bourée” (“Bourée” from Suite in E Minor for Lute)
  • The Beatles, “In My Life” (listen for the Bach-influenced keyboard solo)
  • The Beatles, “Penny Lane” (listen for the trumpet solo influenced by Bach’s Brandenburg Concert No. 2)
  • The Beatles, “Blackbird” (see the video embedded below to hear Paul McCartney explain the influence of the “Bourée” from Suite in E Minor for Lute)
Bach has influenced or been quoted directly by numerous jazz artists.
  • Modern Jazz Quartet, "Fugue in A Minor”
  • Classical Jazz Quartet, “Brandenburg Concerto No. 2”
  • Donald Fox Quartet, “Variations on a Bach Fugue”
Bach’s music has been heard at numerous historical events.
  • After the Berlin Wall came down in 1989, cellist Mstislav Rostropovich sat by the ruins of the wall and played the "Sarabande" from Cello Suite No. 3 in C major.
  • During the Persian Gulf War in February 1991, Isaac Stern was preparing to play at Jerusalem Hall when an air raid siren sounded, obviously causing great concern for people attending the concert. Stern stepped on stage and began playing Bach’s “Sarabande” from Partita No. 1 for Solo Violin to calm everyone down. People in the audience sat through the rest of his performance wearing gas masks. (Stern's gas mask was kept offstage in case he needed it.)
  • For ten days after the September 11 attacks on 2001, public radio stations in New York City adhered to an all-news format. On September 23, WNYC-FM reverted to its classical format with a program titled “Bach: Solace and Inspiration.” The host, David Garland, described the music as something that would “reassure and renew the spirit.” Garland played Art of the Fugue, Goldberg Variations, Sleepers Wake, and Sheep May Safely Graze.
  • On September 11, 2002, Yo-Yo Ma played Cello Suite No. 5 in C minor at ground zero to commemorate the first anniversary of the attacks on the World Trade Center. The names of those who died were read aloud as Ma played.
  • On January 27, 2010, Steve jobs introduced the iPad to the press by playing Bach on iTunes. Jobs had been listening to Bach since he was a teenager. Yo-Yo Ma, one of Jobs’ friends, played at Jobs’ memorial in October 2011.
For almost 300 years, Bach's music has had a significant influence on musicians and composers, and it would not be stretching credulity to ask, “Who has NOT been influenced by Bach?”
  • Mozart studied Bach’s music and admired his ingenuity.
  • Beethoven thought of the Well-Tempered Clavier as his “musical Bible.”
  • Liszt memorized all forty-eight of the preludes and fugues from the Well-Tempered Clavier, Books 1 and 2.
  • Chopin told his students that Bach’s music was “the highest and best school.” Chopin spent two weeks before every concert playing nothing but Bach and did not even practice his own compositions to prepare for a concert, playing only Bach.
  • Mendelssohn admired Bach more than any other composer. His family had long supported a Bach salon in Berlin. Mendelssohn re-introduced Bach to European audiences after he had remained relatively unknown to the general public for almost eighty years.
  • Schumann said, “Music owes as much to Bach as religion to its founder…. We are all bunglers next to him.”
  • Brahms said, “The two greatest events of my lifetime are the founding of the German Empire and the completion of the Bach Gesellschaft's publications."
  • Wagner proclaimed that the greatness of Bach was “almost inexplicably mysterious.”
  • Stravinsky went through a “neo-Bach” phase, composing music that used “the wonderful jolts, the sudden modulations, the unexpected harmonic changes, the deceptive cadences that are the joy of every Bach cantata.”
  • Villa-Lobos composed Bachianas Brasileiras, a collection of nine suites for various instruments and voice that were based on Bach’s style of composition.
  • Almost all modern musicians playing a keyboard instrument, string instrument, or wind instrument have developed their musical technique by playing Bach’s music.
There's so much more to say, but there it is … Bach is everywhere. You may find that it’s impossible to make it through the week without hearing Bach’s music or hearing a piece of music that bears his influence.

And why Bach? Why has Bach, more than any other composer, cast such an inescapable presence over music history?

First, let me state the obvious. Bach was a damned good composer, a highly skilled artist who gave us over 1100 pieces of music. In 1992, Phil G. Goulding published
Classical Music: The 50 Greatest Composers and Their 1000 Greatest Works and declared that Bach was the greatest composer of all time. In January 2011, a New York Times poll conducted by Anthony Tommasini also declared that Bach was history’s greatest composer. Even if he is not history's "greatest" composer, his music has certainly stood the test of time and remains as popular as ever.

The second reason that Bach’s music has become ubiquitous comes from its flexibility. Bach's music can be taken out of the early eighteenth century and easily transferred to the instruments and styles of the twentieth and twenty-first centuries. Bach’s music can be transposed and transformed to adapt to changing technology. It can be adapted to almost any format or medium, from chamber orchestras to full-size orchestras, from lutes to rock bands to digital performances. Bach’s music lends itself to constant reinvention. We can also listen to it as it sounded in the eighteenth century, and it will still sound great to the modern ear.

There's no doubt that long after everyone reading this blog is gone, the world will still be listening to the ubiquitous Bach.

Paul McCartney explaining how Bach influenced his song "Blackbird"


Modern Jazz Quartet, Fugue in A Minor


Yo-Yo Ma Playing Bach at a September 11 Memorial


The inspiration and much of the information for this blog came from
Reinventing Bach by Paul Elie, a book I highly recommend.